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The evolution of the Parochial System had provided ecclesiastical and civil leaders a particular means of resolving these tensions by balancing a mediated, hierarchical unity within the parishes of Christendom against missionary activity in the "Heathen regions beyond.
The enduring strength of this localistic worldview precluded fundamental renegotiation of the balance between settled and mobile ministry until Whitefield's itinerancy upset it in the late s. The New Testament language and narratives were eminently susceptible to the constructions which eighteenth-century revivalists placed upon them in defense of itinerancy. The gospel narratives confirmed Thomas Prince, Sr.
It described Paul's ability to capitalize on the cultural Pluralism of the empire by becoming "all things to all men. These ancient texts revealed a world where links of communication, travel, and mutual support cemented a sense of Kinship among those embracing "all those who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Yet the Old Lights could counter any inclination to take this expansive vision to extremes by appealing to apostolic resolves against "boasting in another man's Line," a fortuitous phrase of scripture which they applied directly to the defense of the parish boundary.
Opposers could also point to apostolic injunctions to defend congregations against itinerant false teachers by "setting in order what remains and ordaining elders in every city. Defenders of European parochialism traced the origins of the parish to this apostolic method of appointing local teachers to preserve the order and purity of the churches. Very early on, the Church's transcendent unity came to be mediated by a class of literate local bishops who maintained contact with their counterparts in other cities of the empire while devoting themselves to pastoral duties that would later devolve to parish priests.
Itinerancy came under strict regulation, falling eventually to a disciplined body of missionary monks and hermits who carried the Gospel to the Roman countryside and barbarian lands from Britain to India. During the medieval period, bishops and kings cooperated to build a parochial system that would maintain this balance between the ordered, mediated unity among local congregations and missionary travel to the heathen world beyond.
In eighth-century Gaul, the Merovingian kings imposed order on their realm by mandating a parochial system as the basic unit of government as well as ecclesiastical life. Merovingian bishops cooperated by restricting roving priests to a single parish. At the same time in Anglo-Saxon England, a parish system emerged through the work of minster churches strategically located in governmental centers. Missionaries used the minster as a base of operations for forays into the surrounding villages, where they conducted services and labored for converts.
By the twelfth century such practices enabled Pope Innocent III to regularize the parish system throughout Christendom. As the parish system came to organize more and more of the European geographical and social landscape, the day-to-day experience of most Christians could no longer support the apostolic consciousness of the self as direct participant in a spiritual community unbounded by ethnicity or locale. Instead, parish life fostered a sense of self bound within a specific local network of relationships by ties of Kinship and obligation.
Church gatherings provided spiritual nurture and cultivated a core set of values that parishioners were expected to share. They also constituted important dramaturgical settings in which peasants, artisans, laborers, local gentry, and noble families rehearsed well-defined roles within the local order.
The individual now participated in the larger world of kingdom and Christendom only vaguely, through the hierarchical mediation of priest and noble. The cycle of festivals which celebrated that wider unity took on distinctive local character. Festivals and other church-sponsored events, such as fund-raising ales, expressed communal piety and values and further reinforced the local social order.
The parish church afforded the prime vehicle for exhibiting local prosperity. The annual rogationtide processions around the parish bounds reminded inhabitants that their identity was inextricably bound up within the community marked by the church building. This parish-centered localism continued to circumscribe the world of most Europeans well into the seventeenth century while enabling ecclesiastical leaders to maintain the distinction between parish priest and traveling missionary. Itinerants such as the Waldensians in Italy and, later, the Lollards in England were suppressed as heretics.
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