Knowledge about early auditory processing plasticity is becoming more granular and effects specific to certain sound environments are becoming clearer. Future investigations must take into consideration the differences between language environments and musical environments in their effects in tuning the auditory system. Musical expertise appears to confer mainly perceptual advantages within linguistic groups. The transfer between language and music effects happen on an early level of processing, but responses are still modulated by behavioral goals which drive efferent connections as well as a holistic pressure to efficiency in the full system.
Data values for each participant used in statistical analyses and demographic information. We thank Professor Tao Sha and her laboratory personnel for collaboration and expertise in data collection as well as the participants for their time. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Both musical training and native language have been shown to have experience-based plastic effects on auditory processing.
Introduction The plastic effects of musical training on the brain have gained great interest in the research community [ 1 ]. Methods Participants 57 native Mandarin Chinese speaking adults aged 18—35 participated in behavioral data collection 21 males, 28 nonmusicians, 29 musicians; Table 1. Download: PPT. Table 1. Description of participants: group designation, age, gender, Gold-MSI scores, and primary instruments of musicians. Procedure The full experiment took 2 hours and all participants completed the brainstem recording first.
Musical expertise For measures of musical expertise used in correlations, the current study uses the generalized score of the self-report questionnaire from the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index Gold-MSI [ 42 ]. Statistical analysis Since the distributions were not normal, nonparametric methods were used.
Results Perceptual effects Musicians showed enhanced single-feature discrimination for both frequency and duration and for duration in the complex task compared to the non-musicians for descriptives, see Table 2. Table 2. Mean and standard deviation of Weber fractions for musicians and nonmusicians for each perceptual variable of interest.
Table 3. Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test for perceptual effects between musicians and nonmusicians. Subcortical effects There were no differences between musicians and nonmusicians for either peak amplitude or latency of wave V in onset responses to the short nonspeech stimuli Fig 1 , nor for either autocorrelation pitch tracking or FFT pitch tracking of fundamental frequency in responses to the speech stimulus Fig 2 , Table 4.
Fig 1. Onset response of musicians blue, dark and nonmusicians red, light to synthesized nonspeech sounds showing V-A complex. Fig 2. Table 4. Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test for subcortical effects between musicians and nonmusicians. Further analysis Formant pitch tracking. Table 5. Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test for first and second formant pitch tracking between musicians and nonmusicians. Correlations with musical sophistication.
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Correlations between Gold-MSI generalized musical sophistication score and perceptual effects. Table 7. Correlations between Gold-MSI generalized musical sophistication score and subcortical effect. Discussion This work investigated the basic perceptual and subcortical auditory profiles of Mandarin speaking musicians and nonmusicians.
Perceptual effects There was no effect of duration ratio, which means that there was no group-based difference in the relationship between the single-feature duration task and the multifeature duration task. Subcortical effects Both groups showed high variability in amplitude of the onset response. Musical expertise The correlational analysis with Gold-MSI scores showed the same pattern of effects as the cross-sectional analysis, which was expected since the group means were significantly different.
Limitations As mentioned above, it was not possible to statistically compare musicians trained in traditional or Western musical styles. Conclusions Knowledge about early auditory processing plasticity is becoming more granular and effects specific to certain sound environments are becoming clearer.
Supporting information. S1 Table. Data values. Acknowledgments We thank Professor Tao Sha and her laboratory personnel for collaboration and expertise in data collection as well as the participants for their time. References 1.
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Kraus N, Chandrasekaran B. Music training for the development of auditory skills. Nature reviews. View Article Google Scholar 2. Pitch discrimination: Are professional musicians better than non-musicians?. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. View Article Google Scholar 3. Moreno S, Bidelman GM. Examining neural plasticity and cognitive benefit through the unique lens of musical training. Hear Res. Pitch discrimination accuracy in musicians vs nonmusicians: an event-related potential and behavioral study. Exp Brain Res. Musicians detect pitch violation in a foreign language better than nonmusicians: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.
J Cogn Neurosci. Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns. Nat Neurosci. Selective subcortical enhancement of musical intervals in musicians. J Neurosci. Musicians have enhanced subcortical auditory and audiovisual processing of speech and music. Proc Natl Acad Sci. Musical experience and neural efficiency—effects of training on subcortical processing of vocal expressions of emotion. Eur J Neurosci. Musicians have fine-tuned neural distinction of speech syllables. Enhancement of auditory cortical development by musical experience in children.
Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance. View Article Google Scholar Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change. Front Psychol.
Training English and Chinese listeners to perceive Thai tones: A preliminary report. Lang Learn. Encoding of pitch in the human brainstem is sensitive to language experience. Cogn Brain Res. The effects of tone language experience on pitch processing in the brainstem. J Neurolinguistics. Human frequency-following response: representation of pitch contours in Chinese tones. Pitch encoding in speech and nonspeech contexts in the human auditory brainstem. Experience-dependent enhancement of linguistic pitch representation in the brainstem is not specific to a speech context.
Language Disorders in Speakers of Chinese
Cooper A, Wang Y. The influence of linguistic and musical experience on Cantonese word learning. J Acoust Soc Am. Linguistic relevance of duration within the native language determines the accuracy of speech-sound duration processing. Modulation of the mismatch negativity MMN to vowel duration changes in native speakers of Finnish and German as a result of language experience. Int J Psychophysiol. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing. Biol Psychol. Musical and linguistic expertise influence pre-attentive and attentive processing of non-speech sounds.
Musical sophistication and the effect of complexity on auditory discrimination in Finnish speakers. In particular, speakers wrongly identified the kitchen scene as a living room and could not recognize the theme of stealing cookies from the cookie jar. Use of culturally inappropriate stimuli is likely to result in an overestimation of aphasia severity due to the lack of relevant content obtained from the person being assessed. Objective measurement of aphasic discourse as a part of a comprehensive assessment has been promoted by ASHA and the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists However, it is often not done in clinical settings because the process of data transcription and analysis is time-consuming.
Clinicians who need to perform more systematic, objective analysis of aphasic narrative production in Chinese can refer to three published systems in Cantonese, two of which are more clinically oriented. The CLCM uses indices that evaluate contents such as lexical diversity and counts of informative words and errors ; grammatical support; degree of elaboration; and efficiency such as rate of producing informative words. More recently, Kong , proposed a rule-based quantification system, the Main Concept Analysis MCA , to capture the presence, accuracy, and completeness of oral narrative content and its production efficiency among Chinese speakers with aphasia.
Researchers who need a more sophisticated system to quantify Chinese narratives can look to the modified Quantitative Production Analysis, proposed by Law This assessment uses a storytelling task to elicit language samples. It contains detailed procedures for extracting narrative words in Chinese and for classifying words into Chinese parts of speech.
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It also includes sensitive criteria for analyzing Chinese compound words and degree of embedding, such as the use of complex sentences and embedded clauses. Compared with the large number of aphasia tests available in English, there is a paucity of standardized assessment tools for the Chinese population. Bilingual clinicians also have limited resources for testing bilingual or multilingual speakers of Chinese. Given that most research related to Chinese aphasiology has been conducted in the Cantonese-speaking population, more investigations in different Chinese dialects are warranted.
Contact him at antkong ucf. Sections About Tools Add to favorites. ASHA , 24 supplement , 65— Google Scholar. Phoon Hooi San Acquisition of comprehension of wh- questions amongst the Chinese pre-school children. Qi Ru Ying International Journal of Bilingualism. Rogayah Abdul Razak, Madison, C. Azmarul A. Aziz Preliminary content validity and reliability of a newly developed Malay preschool language assessment tool.
Reed, V. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Reynell, J. Reynell Developmental Language Scales: Revised. Shipley, K. Speech and Hearing Services in Schools. Siegel, S.
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Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill. Tan Lay Kuang Acquisition of Mandarin classifiers. Teng Wei Ping Acquisition of locative prepositions by Malaysia Chinese pre-school children. Tsang, K.
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Syntactic Awareness of Cantonese-speaking Children. Journal of Child Language. Wang Lin Intensifiers and reflexive pronouns in English and Mandarin Chinese: A contrastive study. International Journal of Behavioral Development. Zhang, R. Journal of East China Normal University. Zhu, M. Acta Psychologica Sinica. Open Journal Systems. Journal Help. User Username Password Remember me. Notifications View Subscribe. Font Size.