A combination of these methods can be used to create phase diagrams of different types of membranes, which yields information on thermodynamic behavior of a membrane and its components. As opposed to membrane biology, membrane biophysics focuses on quantitative information and modeling of various membrane phenomena, such as lipid raft formation, rates of lipid and cholesterol flip-flop, protein-lipid coupling, and the effect of bending and elasticity functions of membranes on inter-cell connections.
Motor proteins. Motor proteins are a class of molecular motors that can move along the cytoplasm of animal cells. They convert chemical energy into mechanical work by the hydrolysis of ATP. A good example is the muscle protein myosin which "motors" the contraction of muscle fibers in animals. Motor proteins are the driving force behind most active transport of proteins and vesicles in the cytoplasm.
The Physics of Proteins : An Introduction to Biological Physics and Molecular Biophysics
Kinesins and cytoplasmic dyneins play essential roles in intracellular transport such as axonal transport and in the formation of the spindle apparatus and the separation of the chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. Axonemal dynein, found in cilia and flagella , is crucial to cell motility , for example in spermatozoa , and fluid transport, for example in trachea.
Some biological machines are motor proteins , such as myosin , which is responsible for muscle contraction, kinesin , which moves cargo inside cells away from the nucleus along microtubules , and dynein , which moves cargo inside cells towards the nucleus and produces the axonemal beating of motile cilia and flagella.
Flexible linkers allow the mobile protein domains connected by them to recruit their binding partners and induce long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics. These machines and their nanoscale dynamics are far more complex than any molecular machines that have yet been artificially constructed. These molecular motors are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. In general terms, a motor is a device that consumes energy in one form and converts it into motion or mechanical work ; for example, many protein -based molecular motors harness the chemical free energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP in order to perform mechanical work.
Richard Feynman theorized about the future of nanomedicine.
He wrote about the idea of a medical use for biological machines. Feynman and Albert Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would be possible to as Feynman put it " swallow the doctor ". These biological machines might have applications in nanomedicine.
For example,  they could be used to identify and destroy cancer cells. Nanomedicine would make use of these nanorobots , introduced into the body, to repair or detect damages and infections. Molecular nanotechnology is highly theoretical, seeking to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield and to propose an agenda for future inquiry.
The proposed elements of molecular nanotechnology, such as molecular assemblers and nanorobots are far beyond current capabilities. Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner. It is the physical process by which a polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure from random coil.
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This polypeptide lacks any stable long-lasting three-dimensional structure the left hand side of the first figure. As the polypeptide chain is being synthesized by a ribosome , the linear chain begins to fold into its three-dimensional structure. Folding begins to occur even during translation of the polypeptide chain. Amino acids interact with each other to produce a well-defined three-dimensional structure, the folded protein the right hand side of the figure , known as the native state. The resulting three-dimensional structure is determined by the amino acid sequence or primary structure Anfinsen's dogma.
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The Physics of Proteins
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